Something that I was waiting for...

Posted on: Feb 2011

I want to share something with you guys... Last week (sorry for the delay) I got an email from Jorgen Thomsen telling me that gnu-pop3d was released:

Hello I just released GNU -pop3d 0.9.13 which is a more stable release than 0.9.12 In a short time I will release 0.9.14 which will implement IPv6 support.

So great, a new gnu-pop3d is available, so I saw the changelog and I saw this:

Bugfix: certain login methods did not work (David B. Cortarello)

Pretty happy about the merging of my patch into mainstream. Thanks Jorgen!


GNU pop3d fix

Posted on: Nov 2010

Wooooo, kinda a lot without saying something here! Well, I took some sabbatical months of blogging ;-)

Recently I've been working on a mail server, and those who know me, knows that I'm pretty minimalistic. So I started with exim and gnu-pop3d (no imap for this) with stunnel to provide ssl support. I use Unix users for authentication, but gnu-pop3d had a (pretty small) bug which made it reject any authentication whether it is right or wrong. So I wrote a patch to provide a fix and sent it to Jorgen Thomsen. He answered me on Wednesday telling me that the patch was accepted.

Anyways, I leave the patch here: gnu-pop3d-0.9.12-fixpasswdlogin.patch


Hidding messages in ICMP packets

Posted on: Feb 2010

Hello everybody. A new month, a new article (I wish I could do this so periodically).

Today I'm going to show you something that I've been playing with. As you probably know (if you don't, I'm just telling you now :-)), the ICMP packets provides an arbitrary data space right after the ICMP header. Normally, no one use it, since ICMP is a control protocol that has all its usage right inside of it, leaving this data space useless.

A few days ago, I saw someone connected on Cinetix and he was just connected, but not on the IRC server and I didn't know who he or she was. So an idea started to flow around my head "What about if I could send messages with ICMP packets".

So actually this is what I did... I wrote a tool to put a message in the data space and send it using the ICMP type 7 which is unassigned (for example, ping is the type 8). The problem is that the kernel just drop type 7 (as we all assume) and the data space is also dropped in any icmp packet. So I wrote a kernel patch that print the message in the output of dmesg or /var/log/message if you have set KERN_NOTICE to be displayed (I think klogd -c 6 does).

With this, you can send to a friend a message of the kind "Hey. This is David, I'm online on irc (jabber or whatever), jump in!" and it will be displayed in the system logs as a kernel notice.

Please, take note that this is not a chat system, but an "emergency system", so don't start using it as an everyday conversation protocol. This also isn't a patch that should be in the kernel mainstream, since ICMP packets of type 7 is unassigned, and NOT a communication protocol.

What about security?

Well, you might start asking yourself this "What if someone from the outside starts flooding my logs with dumb messages?". Right, well, the answer to this is netfilter; use iptables to drop these kind of package. Something like this:

iptables -A INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type 7 -j DROP

As you might know or guess, you can also block only one IP address or accept from a certain network like this:

iptables -A INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type 7 \! -s -j DROP

Use more complex rules creating policies like "if someone exceed the number of 5 ICMP type 7 packets in a minute, drop any packet from the IP address".

Enough with the talking... How do I use it?

Great, right to the point. So the steps:

  1. First of all, patch and compile your kernel.
cd linux-2.6.31 && patch -p1 < patch_icmp_type_7_messages.diff

And compile and install your new kernel using the way you normally do (make config/menuconfig, etc...)

  1. Then compile the icmp_send.c program:
gcc icmp_send.c -o icmp_send
  1. Send a test message:
./icmp_send "Hello world"
  1. Check out the dmesg output:
./dmesg | grep "ICMP 7 Message"

Get it! Anyways, this is a really nice thing to play with and I hope people find it useful. You can get the kernel patch and the ICMP message program from the links below.



Have fun.

Using the ZTE MF 110 with 3g Movistar (Argentina on Linux

Posted on: Jan 2010

Hello all, Today I'm going to explain how to do something really simple. As some of you might already know, I got this year a EEE PC netbook (1000HA). I have to admit that this baby is going great, I'm running the latest Kwort on it and it's really resource saving if you know how to set it up correctly. If I add this netbook a 3g connection, I can say that I'm online everywhere almost all of the time. Well, this is what happened... As most of you already know, I've been working for Accenture for over a year now and they provided me (and some of my co-workers) a 3g modem with internet connection, which is pretty nice. So, on january 1st after all the people who came my home to celebrate the new year left I sitted on the computer to figure out how to make it work. This is a ZTE MF 110, and I found some people who made it work (kinda) or those who plugged it in at ubuntu and said that it works OoTB. Well, this is true kind of, but I hate when you don't really know how things works. Also, I found some people who made it parcially work with wvdial, which is a nice tool also. So, my quest was to make it work with plain pppd. And this isn't really hard to do if you know a little how to play with the AT commands.

Ok, let's put the hands in the mud, first of all, I'm one of those people who likes to have a latest kernel tuned for my device, so this implies that yeah, I compile my own kernel with almost every release... In this case we are compiling So, for this you'll need the usb mass storage system in order to be able to switch from it to the modem mode.

Device Drivers -> USB Support -> (Select your usb version, ehci, uhci or ohci) USB Mass Storage support

Now, this GSM modem (as several others) needs the serial support... Well, actually, this is a serial GSM modem that you want to jack into the USB bus. So you need:

Device Drivers -> USB Support -> USB Serial Converter support

This will create the usbserial module. And now, you need the GSM modem support. So for this, you have to select:

Device Drivers -> USB Support -> USB Serial Converter support -> USB driver for GSM and CDMA modems

I would recommend you to compile them as modules (M) instead of built in, as this isn't a feature that you will be running all the time, so you can unload modules and free some memory (not too much, but everything counts nowadays).

I'm assumming that you already have the PPP support, if not, it's in the device drivers and Network Devices. But if you're reading this, you might already know.

Now, everything is ready for us to set it up.

We need usbmodeswitch, this tool will allow us to switch from the "ZeroCD" mode to the modem mode in order to allow us to call our provider. Basically we need this config (/etc/usbmodeswitch.conf):




This config file will make the usbmodeswtich to swtich the device 0x2000, of the vendor 0x19d2, to 0x0031 sending the message pointed by MessageContent. If the usbstorage module is loaded and you run:

usb_modeswtich -c /etc/usb_modeswitch.conf

And then you run lsusb you'll see the product id changed from 2000 to 0031.

If you got here, now it comes to nice part. In order for us to not use wvdial, we need a call script (also called chat script). I'm going to show you you the script I wrote (/etc/ppp/peers/chats/movistar):

'' ATZ
OK ATQ0\sV1\sE1\sS0=0\s&C1\s&D2\s+FCLASS=0
OK AT+CGDCONT=1,"IP","internet"

This basically it reads like this: abort in any of the conditions above (no carrier, no dialtone, etc...), then reset the modem waiting for nothing, initialize the modem, find out the CID for an APN GPRS, dial and connect. There's information about Hayes AT commands all over the web, so if you're interested you can google it yourself. :-)

Well, now we have to set up our user and password:

echo -e "internet\t*\tinternet" >> /etc/ppp/chap-secrets

And finally, the ppp configuration itself (/etc/ppp/peers/movistar):

connect "/usr/sbin/chat -v -f /etc/ppp/peers/chats/movistar"
user "internet"
mtu 1492
ipparam movistar

Most of this options are self explanatory, but the importants one are the connect line and the "/dev/ttyUSB2" one. The first one tells pppd to use the chat program to connect the other point and the chat script that will be used (/etc/ppp/peers/chats/movistar, that we created before), if, for example, you set up a pptp connection you'll see this line pointing to the pptp client program. The second one tells pppd the modem device, maybe you have to play a little bit with this one trying /dev/ttyUSB2 or /dev/ttyUSB3 (if you don't wan't to try you can use minicom to find out, good luck with that :-P).

Well, now everything is ready to connect, you just need to run:

pppd call movistar

From now one, if you restart your laptop/netbook or normal PC, all you have to do is:

sleep 1  # Let the device sync with the switch
pppd call movistar

The kpkg issues

Posted on: Dec 2009

Hello everybody... Today I'm going to speak about kpkg. Well, I wrote 4 package managers before I started kpkg, there was kwt-get, kum, kget and another one I can't remember. With every package manager I wrote things where from a very simple start, allowing to install, search and remove packages to a more complex usage allowing several mirrors, dependencies resolution out of the box, and finally the idea of third party packages (this last idea appeared in kpkg), package series, etc. Let's analyze those 4 functionalities: 1.- More than one mirror was something asked, but once I implemented, there wasn't more than 3 or 4 mirrors out there. 2.- Dependencies resolution is a huge deal, the real thing is that under the hood it sucks, and I see why big distributions with lots of developers has package managers supporting this feature, as they have several developers who everyone takes 10 or 20 packages, build them and fill the databases with the dependency tree. The fact is that this feature is bad implemented in any distribution, it shouldn't be something that the developer has to fill (the database with its dependencies), it should be something auto generated at build time, I don't know, a file listing its dependencies generated by configure (when using autotools) or something similar. I could spend like an hour talking about this feature since I made 3 different implementations of its resolution algorithm. 3.- Well, third party packages (also known as tpp). This actually wasn't a feature it was a way to deal with an inconsistency in kpkg, the fact that packages were registered in mirror databases, if one was repeated, it has to be a "third party package", so kpkg (without any environment variable altering its normal course) treated it as a non identified package (or a package provided by a third party developer not included in any mirror). Of course someone could deal with this using environment variables (MIRROR, STANDALONE and SERIE). So installing a package from the console without having it in a mirror and keeping the database clean without tpp was a huge deal. With tpp, kpkg tried to do, with the same tool, what debian does with a separated tool (dpkg). 4.- Series was kinda one of those features that supposed to help but didn't, in fact, it complicated things. If you start looking at a package system you think "Great, series, this is a way to pre-hash every package", well, it kinda did that job, but complicated all other things, actually this feature was one of those that pushed the "third party packages" "feature".

Despite with dependency resolution (now, a few years back it was supported), kpkg support all this features. By this time you might be asking "Why god why this package manager is so complex and twisted"... Well, the fact is that even I hate kpkg nowadays. Also, as most of you might know, kpkg is written in bash, with leave us a lot of issue. Why? Well, kpkg makes use of several console tools included in packages like coreutils (ls, rm, mktemp, md5sum, etc), findutils (find), sed, awk, grep, wget, tar, lzma, etc... Can you imagine what could happen if you try to update for example the coreutils? Well, to understand this question and being able to answer it, you need to know some of the kpkg internals, but summarizing what kpkg does is "Download the new package, remove the old package, install the new package", and almost every package managers do this (there's also some other algorithms to deal with this but you need to save more data of every file included in the package). Now, if you upgrade to a new version of, for example, the coreutils, what kpkg do is: "Download the new coreutils, remove the old coreutils, install the new coreutils", if you remove coreutils kpkg starts failing pathetically leaving your system out of use (sorry, toilet cleaning :-P) and we all have to pull the shades down and go home. In fact this happened some weeks ago and a user came to me with insults, ranting and all the bad things you can imagine. Well, he was right about my mistake, but I'm human and I can make tons of those (and thank god we all still making mistakes, it's a proof that we still humans) and the fact is that no one is paying me for developing Kwort and all its tools, so take it easy. Anyways, this leave us to the fact that we can't upgrade some (several) packages and with them, of course, the libc.

So, I'm dealing with all this problems re-writing kpkg in what we can call "kpkg new generation" (LOL, it even sounds cool eh? :-P). How I dealed with all this problems? Well, some of those original "features" were dropped, "dependencies resolution" was out of the table way before starting, "series" support was removed as with the new database it isn't needed anymore, and third party packages was also dropped since the new approach is more consistent. What about the fact that you can't upgrade several packages? Well, kpkg is now written in C and static compiled (so everything can be upgraded :-)).

The new kpkg use sqlite3 as database backend, libarchive for package decompressing (giving us support for tgz, tbz2, tar, lzma, xz, zip, etc) and libcurl for package retrieving which leave us support for tons of protocols. And every piece of the code is very well documented with doxygen which will help everyone who wants to read the source code.

So far, the new implementation of kpkg (in C) has support for almost the same options (search, install, remove, provides, update and download) the actual kpkg has, and only the upgrade support is the only one missing (I hope I have time to code it this week). So I will try to upload the source to github as soon as I can, so everyone can start to find bugs in it and improve it.

See you soon guys, and if I don't before Christmas, Merry Christmas :-)


New Kpkg hosting

Posted on: Dec 2009

Well, the C version of kpkg is now hosted at: It would be cool if people start checking it out.

Upgrade support is working partially, as only one package at the time can be upgrated, I will try to finish the whole upgrade support soon.

If any people want to use kpkg in their personal distributions (I don't think ubuntu/suse/etc... users will want to run kpkg on their systems, but who knows), it would be nice to know.

Also patches to add more functionality, fixes or any kind of power, are always welcome.

Oh, and btw, the sqlite databases structures (for mirrors and personal systems) are included in datastructs.h. If you have any questions, please ask here or mail me. :-)


Vim bug using ctags

Posted on: Oct 2009

Well, lot of people know that I'm a vim fan and that I use it everyday, to me is like the killer app that everyone should know how to use in Unix. Even at work, I'm a programmer (doing C on Unix now), and some of my fellows were using Eclipse and after I show them Vim, they was like "woooo, I can use this editor as an IDE and still can use my machine for do something else while programming" (I was like, blame the one who introduced you to Eclipse :-P).

Anyways, I like using tags, allows me to browse the code really fast (for those using Eclipse, I think is like if you press F3 over a function name). But I found this weird behavior using ctags+vim. See the above code:

  1 #include <stdio.h>
  3 int asd(int s,
  4         char a);
  6 int main(int argc, char *argv[])
  7 {
  8     asd(1, 's');
  9     return 0;
 10 }
 12 int asd(int s,
 13         char a)
 14 {
 15     return s;
 16 }

When I press ctrl+] over asd in line 8, it takes you to the 3rd line instead to the 12th... There's a "workaround" to this behavior, using --excmd=number while running ctags put the line numbers in the tags file (without this option ctags puts just an 'f' identifier to tell the editor that it is on that file). But it is just a visualization workaround, because you can't put any new line (or remove) in those files or your tags file will screw the tags file.

Does anyone knows a solution to this issue?


Kwort 3... The big change

Posted on: Sep 2009

Hello everybody. This is just a flashlight of what Kwort 3 will be. Kwort 3 brings a whole new era of Kwort Linux, Kwort public might change now, I'm not focusing anymore in inexperienced users, but on intermediate-advanced users and up.

Why is that? Well, kinda I'm forced to do that. Kwort's most important problem was always the kernel, not because Linux is bad, but because some drivers are. For example, wireless drivers tend to suck... I mean, WTH is that closed source microcode needed for most drivers? That's just plain wrong. I'm not talking here about making it free software, but open source would help everybody to make better drivers. Also there are tons of wireless cards out there unsupported (or half supported) because companies not releasing specifications, we are not even talking about open source anything here. COME ON! I'm not going to take this to the free software vs. open source vs. closed software, people who know me, knows that I hate those topics and I leave those to politicians and software philosophers.

Despite of that, some other things are not easy (as it should be) to support, and inexperienced users tend to not know what they want (first they want a desktop, then they want to be able to configure a web server with a GUI (that I'm not going to write) for some php scripting , then they want to create a RAID or LVM). Kwort was always meant to be for the desktop, and the desktop only, not a web server not a redundant file server, etc. And the funny part is: If you don't provide packages for what they want, they get pissed off and I've also got insults because of this. People, what is going on here? It's not like you're paying me (and if you would, that doesn't even give you the right to insult me), you can ask for something. I develop Kwort in my free time. So, advanced users tend to know a lot more, from the work that takes to do something like Kwort, to how to check logs and write or hack some script to do what they want (for example a network configuration script).

So... Kwort 3 is now based on CRUX which will make it more advanced. I'm not changing it to CRUX because I want it to be hard and for truly advanced users, but because Slackware has become a really multi-purpose distribution, and strip out all the "unneeded" stuff for Kwort would take me a lot of time. Also the init system has changed and the way it is configured too. Don't worry about all this, it is already well documented in the new website (this new one is really cool, with tons of information as it always should be but never was). There's no more wizards tools like knm (Kwort network manager) and kum (Kwort user manager), but a console and the chosen editor. Despite of that kum and knm will still be maintained and developed (kind of).

Anyways, Kwort 3 is almost ready be released. There's a beta release already that everyone can test (there are some testers already doing a great job that helped me a lot).

Sorry for not having you all up to date related to Kwort, but I've been working a lot and in my free time I try to develop Kwort. For example, now, I'm in my lunch time, and I passed out lunch in order to write something for you about the new direction of this project.


Thunar and hard drive partitions

Posted on: Jul 2009

Hello everybody, It's been so long since my last post here. There's so much to talk about, but today I'm going to talk about Thunar. As some of you might know, thunar is the file manager used in Xfce, written by Benedikt Meurer, and nowadays maintained by Jannis Pohlmann. I really like thunar, but the fact that hard drive partitions are left to the distribution itself when hal can manage them and because of that the file manager also can, isn't really nice, as you can browse your partitions in newer versions of GTK's (with Gvfs) GtkFileChooser. An ugly workaround would be to mount them and add some gtk bookmarks, but you would like to set an emblem to differentiate them from normal bookmarks, and emblems are not part of the gtk library, so you wouldn't see emblems in a GtkFileChooser. Another issue would be that isn't dynamic, so if someone change partitions that would be a total mess. So IMHO the best solution to this is: Hard Drive partitions managed by hal (DeviceKit in the future) and let Thunar show them in the left pane. And this is what I actually did.

So, as everybody loves screenshots and you probably want to see how this looks:

Thunar and partitions

And finally, the patch:


Kwort Linux 2.4.1 released

Posted on: Apr 2009

I'm happy to announce that Kwort 2.4.1 final is here!

This version took a year to develop and provides a lot of changes from 2.4 release, including a new, more cleaned up than usual, base system, whole new tool chain, new configuration tools and lots of new things.

Good things in this new version:

  • Kwort's init system: From 2.4, the init system has evolved keeping its simplicity but providing some new features.
  • Linux A lot of hardware support was included since the kernel included in Kwort 2.4.
  • Kpkg: The new version of kpkg include several new features as the adoption of multi-mirror support.
  • Kwort User Manager: Re-written from scratch it Provides a simple way to create and remove users with a new interface.
  • Kwort Network Manager: Also re-written from scratch, allows you to configure your network (wired and wireless), as manage your dns and hostname system. It also allows you to switch wireless drivers.
  • Xfce: This new version brings a lot of changes under the hood making the desktop more extensible.
  • Audacious: This is the default music player since Kwort 2.4.1 allowing you to play your music in a very simple way.
  • Our new Google group Ok, this has nothing to do with something included in the release, but it allows the developers behind Kwort to communicate between them and also with the users (who are what Kwort is all about).

As in every old version now comes the things that I look forward to improving:

  • Thunderbird: It's kind of sad, but thunderbird isn't yet full "xulrunnized", so starting firefox+thundebird brings two copies of xulrunner up to memory, which as we all know, is kinda in the chubby side.
  • Audacious: Although audacious is pretty good doing its job, I think a jukebox is more needed these days, as people needs more information while playing their music. It is known that using gstreamer would take out some of the features audacious brings, but we have a full-featured media-handling components and using those frameworks would allow the Linux desktop to improve, communicate between applications and to remain simple.

People who I would like to thank: Andreas Schipplock as always for making and maintaining the website, mirroring the Kwort iso image, and kind of playing a role of resources manager that allows me to develop easily Kwort. Sebastian Reisse for writing the kpkg manpage, and for taking a lot of his time testing every release candidate, if it wasn't for him, this release would come with several bugs. The Aircable people for their donations as they helped me to buy some hardware I was needing for develop Kwort. The mirror providers as usual, the people from PGHosting and Ricardo Brisighelli for the package mirror in the UNR. Finally, but not less important a very big THANKS to Patrick Volkerding for Slackware Linux, the system Kwort is based on. The Xfce developers (core and goodies) who made 4.6 a lot more simple to configure for distributions and provided help when needed. The people who develop every project Kwort includes. I hope I didn't forget anyone.

As usual, if you need support, help, or you just feel like talking about Kwort (or anything else), or you just want to meet the people who is behind Kwort, you can join us on IRC or our Google group:

IRC: irc://

Google Group: